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德國制造品質的背后:不相信人

發布于:2016-06-15 11:53來源:未知 作者:admin 點擊:
      一說起德國制造,大家都覺得好,大到汽車,小到螺絲刀,但他們為什么好,到底好在哪,并不是所有人都清楚。 

      德國制造的口碑是建立在一個非常有意思而且關鍵的觀點上:不相信人 。德國人有一個根深蒂固的觀念,是人都會犯錯,都會有誤差 ,特別是在生產環節,這些人引入的負面影響經過流水線的每個環節逐級放大,必然會最終影響產品的品質。因此整個產品的生產工程中,人的因素越多,最終產品出問題的可能性越大。所以德國人提高品質的思路非常直接,就是在生產環節要動用一切可能的手段把人的天然影響降低到最小,把每件事情都分解成機器(或者人像機器一樣動作)能簡單執行的 。換句話說,就是提高生產的自動化水平,只要機器能做的,在成本合理的范圍內,就堅決不讓人做。

     HENDUODIANDAJIADOULEJIE,BAOKUOGONGYESHEJI、MINZUXINGGEDENGDENG、YANFATOURUDENGDENG,WOJIUBULANGFEISHIJIANLE,DANSHIKEYIZHONGDIANJIANGJIANGZHIZAOBENSHEN:

     流程化 。下圖是大眾汽車 1969 年的生產流水線,自動化程度比現今國內很多車廠的自動化程度都高。生產流程化的核心目的就是把生產過程切分成非常細小的片段,每個片段都遵循嚴格的順序加工,片段之間用自動化的傳動裝置連接起來,每個片段簡單到不需要人工操作的時候,就被機器取代了。另一個行業的例子,說起軟件公司,大家都記得微軟之類的美國公司,但是做流程軟件最成功的卻是德國的 SAP,他們把企業(甚至非生產型組織)內部所有流程都固化到軟件里面,把企業里面每個人都通過軟件固化到一個功能,最后完成了企業的可靠高效運作,這就是流程化的威力。(我想企業里面用過 SAP 的 ERP 系統的人,特別是財務采購之類的肯定特別熟悉)

  可測量 。比如下圖是 Carl Zeiss 在 1973 年推出的三維測量儀器,精度 0.5 微米,給精細工業生產帶來了革命。性能優異的各種測量儀器儀表也是德國人造的比較好。他們希望生產的每個環節都可以精確測量到產品和生產線的各種問題并及時糾正。通過這些測量手段,他們在生產過程中引入了大量的反饋回路來保證生產的產品品質波動控制在很小的范圍內,這是保證產品品質的重要前提。另一個大家熟悉的行業的例子,德國人的廚房比咱們中學生的化學實驗室設備還要多,所有食材都是要用精確測量的,當然,所有加工時間和關鍵環節的加工溫度也是需要精確測量的。

  自動化 。自動化就是把人類不擅長做的重復易錯的交給機器人。比如下面就是德國著名的 Fraunhofer Institute 工業服務部心目中的未來工廠的照片。有什么特點:工廠完全是機器自己在生產,而人的作用被形象化為兩種:一是做生產規劃,下達生產指令;二是給機器打下手幫助保持生產線高效可靠運轉。(順便吐槽一句,看完這張圖每個人都應該明白為什么中國工人收入這么少了吧?)

  職業化 。就舉個例子,前幾天遇到一個德國的老工程師,沒有什么學歷,從德國的職業教育學校 FH 畢業后就在機械工程師崗位上干了三十多年,德國所有核電站的蒸汽輪機都是他負責安裝調試的。在部門里面非常受尊重。不知中國現在有幾個工程師有這樣的機會和志向做到這種程度。(下圖核電廠蒸汽輪機的大小可以從旁邊梯子得到直觀的對比)這種知識經驗的積累對于可靠的生產和工程質量事關重要。

  工具化 。大家都知道工欲善其事必先利其器的道理。德國人喜歡工具,幾乎可以說做每件事情都有專門的工具。第一次去一個德國朋友家做客就驚呆了,自認為比較喜歡搗鼓,在家滿滿一抽屜工具已經很專業了,和德國同事一比較就是一個乞丐。他家的工具掛滿了地下室整整一面墻。螺絲刀就有幾十把,修車的扳手就比我所有工具還要多得多。可惜當時沒有拍照,下面借用因特網上的照片給點感覺吧(這比我朋友的要少得多,但是感覺是一樣的)。反觀國內,只要自家裝修過的人,都遇到過工人馬馬虎虎隨便找來幾塊破木頭搭破梯子湊合的例子吧?

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  德國制造的現狀

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  德國制造的思維

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  德國產品的奧秘

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  德國產品到底好在哪

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